Hyperpigmentation is a condition caused due to increased production of melanin in skin cells. This generally occurs in case of dark skinned persons and mostly affect parts of face, chest and hands etc. As a result of this increased production of melanin the skin gets darkened. In some cases the pigmentation is so bad that it looks as if tattoo work has gone wrong. This can even affect the self esteem of a person suffering from hyperpigmentation.
This condition mostly results from damage due to increased production of melanin due to exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun, inflammation, acne, and skin injury. Common forms of uneven skin tone are age or liver spots. Pigmentation is also caused by hormonal changes during or after pregnancy. Pregnancy-related pigmentation goes with the childbirth. Hormonal disorder correction medicines and birth control pills can also result in pigmentation.
Treatment involves reducing the intensity of pigmentation. Before trying anything it is better to consult your dermatologist. The following methods may be used for correction of this condition:
Microdermabrasion involves a process of removal of the unevenly pigmented cells from the surface of the skin. The dead skin cells on the upper layer of the skin are removed. A very fine layer of the skin is peeled off and new skin is allowed to grow. However, if the dark cells are deep inside the skin this process will not help.
Medication is another process of treatment of hyperpigmentation. Various medicated creams are available. The one suggested by the doctor should be applied on the affected portion to make the skin tone even. The drawback is that if the skin is again exposed to UV rays without sunscreen cover the skin will darken again.
Laser treatment is another method of treatment. By laser beam, upper layers of the skin are evaporated or the dark cells high in melanin are killed so that the new layers of new cells are of even color. Use of Intense Pulsed Light to clear the skin is also gaining popularity in place of the laser.
The use of hydroxy acid treatment involves exfoliation of the skin using this acid. When used the rate of exfoliation increases and the skin with hyperpigmentation is slowly replaced by new skin.
Use of sunscreen of the appropriate SPF should be used as a preventive method not only before going out, it should be applied on the affected part even when indoor as diffused UV rays are present everywhere.
Certain home remedies are said to be of great help. Apply lemon juice mixed with honey and yogurt on the affected part. Let it dry and then wash with cool water. This will act slowly.
Proper nourishing and balanced diet, adequate care of the skin, use of proper skin hydrants accompanied with medication will help reduce the impact of pigmentation to a great extent.